English | Multilinguale | Español
 
LE ORACION ET SU ELEMENTS | THE SENTENCE AND IT'S ELEMENTS

LE ORACION ET SU ELEMENTS

Le orden general de le elements en le oracion

THE SENTENCE AND ITS ELEMENTS

General order of the elements in a sentence

Le objetive de multilinguale es oferer a tot le parlantes le posibilitie de se expreser desde quelcum lingua origine, le sue propie. Por ese rason, nosotres explike le diferent posicions de le elements de un oracion como normalment aparece en le diferent linguas.

Le orden de le elements en le oracion es diferent en le linguas subjetive et objetive, como nosotres explike:

(A: actor; V: verbe; O: objet; R: receptor)

Orden de le elements en le linguas objetive

  • AVOR (Jon done livre Pedro / Jon done livre a Pedro)
    • Preposicion
    • Substantive + complement
    • Substantive + adjetive
    • Oracion principal + oracion subordinad
    • Verbe et adverbie
    • Nominative et acusative

Orden de le elements en le linguas subjetive:

  • AROV (Jon Pedro livre done) Postposicion
  • Complement + sustantive
  • Adjetive + sustantive
  • Oracion subordinad + Oracion principal
  • Adverbie et verbe
  • Ergative et absolutive

  • Linguas AVOR:
    • Europa: English, Francese, español, Germanik, Rusian, Italian, Portuguese, Holandese, Suek, Polonese, Chek, Grek, etc.
    • America: Guarana, Maya, etc.

  • Linguas AROV:
    • Basque, Japanese.

Le orden servi par asigner le case or funcion de le elements de la oracion, quI es le actor, le objet or le receptor. No obstant, es equalment posible user marks, parce que le marks es used en quelque linguas or par clarifier le significad. Multilinguale evite generalment le redundancie pero cherche faciliter le comprehension, et in este case le marks aide a confirmer si have dudes.

Juan done un livre a Pedro en Paris

A Pedro Juan done un livre en Paris

En este oracions, le orden aclare le funcions de Actor, Objet et Receptor sin user marks.

No obstant, no es equal:

Pedro Juan done livre en Paris

En este oracion es necesarie introducir le mark de le dative, parce que le receptor, quI recibi le libre, no es clare. Por ese rason, le mark aide a la comprehension.

A Pedro Juan done livre en Paris

Since the purpose of multilinguale is offering every speaker the possibility to express from his source language whatever it may be, we are going to explain elements different positions in different languages.

As it is explained here, elements order in a sentence is different in subjective and objective languages:

(A: Actor; V: Verb; O: Object; R: Recipient)

Elements order in objective languages

  • AVOR (Jon done livre Pedro / Jon done livre a Pedro)
    • Preposition
    • Noun + complement
    • Noun + adjective
    • Main sentence + subordinate sentence
    • Verb and adverb
    • Nominative and accusative

Elements order in subjective languages:

  • AROV (Jon Pedro livre done)
    • Postposition
    • Complement + noun
    • Adjective + noun
    • Subordinate sentence + Main sentence
    • Adverb and verb
    • Ergative and absolutive

  • AVOR languages:
    • Europe: English, French, Spanish, German, Russian, Italian, Portuguese, Dutch, Swedish, Polish, Czech, Greek, etc.
    • America: Guarana, Maya, etc.

  • AROV languages:
    • Basque, Japanese.

The order aims to assign the case or the function of sentence elements, that means, that is to say, who is the actor, the object or the recipient. However, it is also possible to use marks, because they are used in some languages or just to clear up the meaning. Multilinguale tries to avoid repetition but it tries to make comprehension easier, and in this case, marks help to confirm if there is any doubt.

Juan gives a book to Pedro in Paris

Juan gives Pedro a book in Paris

In these sentences, the order makes clear the functions of Actor, Object and Recipient without using marks.

However, it is not the same:

Pedro Juan gives book in Paris

Here, it is necessary to introduce the mark of the dative, since the recipient, who receives the book, is not clear. Therefore the mark is helpful for the comprehension:

To Pedro Juan gives book in Paris

Marks de le elements de le oracion

Marks of the elemnts of the sentence

Le marks de le elements de le oracion es doned per le posicion de este elements en le oracion.

  • Le elements referent, nominative et absolutive, nunca es marked, et pove eser distinguid per le manque de mark or per le posicion.
  • Le elements no referent pove necesiter eser marked, si no es identifiked per le contexte or per le posicion. De este maniere, se establece le siguientes priorities: le mark supra le contexte, et le contexte supra le posicion.
  • Le dative sempre porte marks: ad (a)
  • Le acusative et le ergative es equalment distinguid per le posicion (le marks es aceptad pero no recomendad).
  • Acusative: an (-n)
  • Ergative: ak (-k)
  • Le objet es normalment inter le verbe et le receptor (VOR#ROV), et si la posicion no es ese, et le contexte no lo aclare, se dove marker le objet et le receptor.
  • Si no have dative, le acusative pove porter le mark de dative (a), parce que le du es objets, le acusative objet direct et le dative objet indirect. Le mark no es un mark especifik de dative, es un mark de objet en general.

The marks of the elements of a sentence are given by the position imposed by the order of the elements.

  • The referent elements, nominative and absolutive, have no marks and can be distinguished by the lack of mark or by the position.
  • If they are not identified by the context or by the position, non referent elements may need a mark. In this way, the following priorities are set up: the mark above the context, and the context above the position.
  • Dative always has marks: ad (a)
  • Accusative and the ergative are also distinguished by the position (marks are accepted but not recommended).
  • Accusative: an (-n)
  • Ergative: ak (-k)
  • The object normally goes between the verb and the recipient (VOR#ROV). If it is not so, and the context do not clear it, both object and recipient must be marked.
  • If there is no dative, accusative can carry the mark of  dative (a), since both are objects, accusative direct object and the dative indirect object. Therefore, the mark is not a specific mark of dative, but a mark of object in general.
Exemples


VO
Simon done un livre  a Ana
(nom)              (acu)     (dat)
VO
A Ana done un livre   Simon
(dat)                (acu)     (nom)
 
OV
Simon    a Ana  un livre done
(erg)           (dat)     (abs)
OV
A Ana  un livre done Simon    
(dat)        (abs)             (erg)


Event – Ente (VO)
Nominative (actor referent)
no marked
 
Acusative (objet no referent)
an (-n)
Opcional
Dative
ad (a)
Necesarie
Ente - Event (OV)
Ergative (actor no referent)
ak (-k)
Opcional
Absolutive (objet referent)
no marked
 
Dative
ad (a)
Necesarie

Otre maniere de asigner le cases es le proposicion et postposicion. Le siguiente examples se explique.

  • Expresions or linguas que use preposicion:

Ex.: “cup of coffee” (english) → Taza de cafep

  • Expresions or linguas que use postposicion:

Ex: “coffee cup” (english) → Cafe taza  (cafe-de taza)

Es recomendable que le element marked es le element que determine (determinant), et no le element determined. 

Otre maniere de asigner le cases es le proposicion et postposicion. Le siguiente examples se explique.

  • Expresions or linguas que use preposicion:

Ex.: “cup of coffee(english) → Taza de cafe

  • Expresions or linguas que use postposicion:

Ex: “coffee cup(english) → Cafe taza  (cafe-de taza)

It is recommended that the mark lays over the determined element (determinant), and not over the determined one. 

Posterior
 Posterior Posterior
Contacto
Return

Multilingua Maternal

Multilingua plus de 30% de persones (2.000 millons) comprende le 90% de le vocabularie et gramatik

Vos comprendez?




Multilinguale maternal

Multilinguale maternal es un micro-sintesis de le linguas natural, de expresion maternal et comprehension multilingual, que facilitie le expresion et amplie le comprehension. Multilinguale es pro maternal et preserve le use de le linguas maternal.

Follow us on