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GRAMATIK UNIVERSAL | UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR

GRAMATIK UNIVERSAL

UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR

En este projet sistemik supra le gramatik universal, este es presented desde le punt de viste de le analisis de sistemes, le plus simplement posible, par faciliter le comprehension de le complexitie de le linguas, parce que este projet es oved et adaptable a le necesities present et future.

Le comprehension de le gramatik universal face posible elever le entendement de le gramatikes de le linguas en general et de le lingua maternal en particular.

Le sintaxis se pove entender como le combinacion de du elements, de un binomie linguistik, que pove recibir diferent nomes segun le funcion que have en un oracion. Ese binomie, employend un metode de analisis event-ente  ente-event, donere como resultat le oracion. Este  metode consiste en:

  • Definicion de le elements basik
  • Establecer sue relacions interne
  • Analisis de ese relacions complexe
  • Mostrer le relacions complexe en le elements basik

De este forme, quelcun estructure linguistik, inclured le plus complexes, pove eser reducid a un composicion iterative binomial de ente-event  event-ente.

On this systemic project about universal grammar, this is presented from as symplified as possible analysis system, trying to make the comprehension of the complexity of languages easier. It is an open and adaptable project to present and future needs.

The comprehension of the universal grammar enables improving the understanding of the grammars of languages in general and of the maternal language in particular.

Syntax can be understood as the combination of two elements in a linguistic binomial structure, which can receive different names according to the functions they fulfill in a sentence. The combination of those two elements, using an analysis method event-entity entity-event, will give as a result the sentence. This method consists in:

  • Definition of the basic elements
  • Establishing their inner relationships
  • Analysis of these complex relationships
  • Showing the complex relationships in the basic elements

In this way, any linguistic structure, complex as it may be, can be reduced to a binomial iterative composition of entity-event event-entity.

Binomies integral

Integral binomials

Le estructure sintactik basik es composed per binomies, que se integre mutualment jusque le oracion es formed. Le binomie basik es le binomie objet et verbe (OV), conjuntement con le binomies event-ente (eventive)  ente-event (entitive), pero pove haver otre tipologies de binomie en un oracion, por exemple le binomie de sintagme nominal (entitive) et sintagme verbal (eventive), or le binomie adjetive-sustantive or verbe-adverbie. Le binomie entitive-eventive es relative. Intra un binomie have sempre un element plus entitive or plus eventive respect le otre.

Algun binomies es influencied per otre binomies superior. En ocasions le relacions inter binomies face changer le orden de le oracion.

Le du diferent ordens posible de le binomie basik (OV or VO) genere du grand families de linguas (de similar numero de parlantes; por exemple, en chinese et japonese le marks es postpositive):

  • Estructure VO or subjetive: Linguas en le que le plus important es le actor (le qui) front le objet (le que).
  • Estructure OV or objetive: Linguas en le que le plus important es le objet (le que) front a le actor (le qui).

Le linguas en origine, en comunities petit, normalment es objetive, et quand es transformed a comunities grand have tendencie a se convertir en subjetive. En le linguas subjetive le actor (qui realise le action) es le element plus important, front le objet (le action realised), inversement que en le linguas subjetive. Este tendencie confirme que have haved un change de value, que face plus important a le qui (subjetive) front a le action realised (objetive).


The basic syntactic structure is composed by the binomial elements that integrate each other until the sentence is composed. The basic binomial is the one composed by an object and a verb (OV), together with the binomials event-entity (eventive) entity-event (entitive). But there may be many other types of binomials in a sentence, for example the binomial of nominal syntagma (entitive) and verbal syntagma (eventive), or the binomial adjective-noun or verb-adverb. The binomial entitive-eventive is relative. Inside any binomial there is always a more entitive or more eventive element in comparison to the other one.

Depending on the order of the basic binomial elements (OV or VO), two big families of languages with a similar number of speakers are created. For example, in Chinese and Japanese the marks are postpositive:

  • VO or subjective structure: Languages where the most important element is the actor (who) opposite to the object (what).
  • OV or objective structure: Languages where the most important element is the object (what) opposite to the actor (who).

In small communities in origin languages are normally objective,  instead of when they are transformed to big communities that they tend to become subjective. In subjective languages, opposite to the objective one, the actor (who carries out the action) is the main element, whereas the object (what action is carried out). This tendency confirms that there has been a change of values, making who (subjective) carries out the action prevail over the action carried out (objective).

Le hindi et le english antik es ergative.

Le lingua chinese, formed per topic et comentarie, es based supra le misme principies pero con du oracions.

Hindi and old English are ergative.

In the case of Chinese language, formed by topic and comment, it would be the same premises but using two sentences.

Eventive / Entitive

Eventive / Entitive

Le binomie basik es formed per le verbe-objet  objet-verbe. Le du elements es complemented binomialment de maniere interactive con le rest de sintagmes de un oracion.

Le diagrame siguiente, como digesto, mostre eskematikment le caracteristiks principal de le du grand grupes en que quelcun lingua pove eser clasified: le estructure VO et le estructure OV. Le linguas es originariement entitive or eventive, pero le realitie es que le majoritie es hibride.

The basic binomial structure is formed by the verb-object object-verb, binomially complemented in an interactive way with the rest of syntagmas of a sentence.

To sum up, the following diagram shows the main features of the two big groups any language can be classified into: VO structure and OV structure. Languages are originally entitive or eventive, but in fact most of them are hybrid.

GRAMATIK UNIVERSAL
BINOMIES
Event-ente
(Eventive-Entitive)
Ente-Event
(Entitive-Eventive)
VO OV
Verbe - Objet Objet - Verbe
Verbe event principal Verbe event principal
Objet no referent (Acusative) Objet referent (Absolutive)
Actor referent (Nominative) Actor no referent (Ergative)
Subjetive Objetive
Preposicion Postposicion
Principal – Subordinad Subordinad - Principal
Principal – ComplementComplement - Principal
Sustantive – Adjetive Adjetive - Sustantive
Verbe - Adverbie Adverbie - Verbe
Objet – Receptor (OR) Receptor – Objet (RO)
Accion active Accion pasive
Actor posicion libere Actor posicion libere
Referent no marked Referent no marked
Receptor sempre marked Receptor sempre marked
Particules preoracionalesParticules postoracionales

Le actor referent et le objet referent es le que se refere a le verbe.

Lingua subjetive

  • Actor: Nominative (Referent de le verbe)
  • Objet: Acusative
  • Estructure: (A) V O (A)

Lingua objetive

  • Actor: Ergative
  • Objet: Absolutive (Referent de le verbe)
  • Estructure: (A) O V (A)

The referent actor and the referent object are those which refer to the verb.

Subjective language
  • Actor: Nominative (Referent of the verb)
  • Object: Accusative
  • Structure: (A) V O (A)
Objective language
  • Actor: Ergative
  • Object: Absolutive (Referent of the verb)
  • Structure: (A) O V (A)

Estructure doble oracion

Double sentence structure

Este estructure es de du oracions unid, le primere expone le teme (topic) et le second develope le comentarie. Le oracion topic no have verbe.

Este es un case tipik de le linguas chinese et japanese, et equalment usual en le gramatik de le linguas objetive (por example le postposicion)

Un exemple de oracion chinese traducid a multilinguale poverie eser le siguiente:

  • 猎鼠的 猫   (Chinese)
  • Gato,                        caza ratones                       (español)
    (Referent tematik) (Comentarie supra le topik)
  • Le cat, il caza rates (Multilinguale)

Have varies referents: -un referent general (topic), et un referent focal, supra le actor or subjetive (nominative) or supra le objet (absolutive). En le oracion topic sere le referent general, et en le oracion comentarie sere le referent focal.

Le chinese no have marks par este fenomene gramatik, pero por exemple en le japanese have le siguiente particules:

  • Wa – Referent general (teme, topic)
  • Ga – Referent focal (objetive or subjetive)

Le combinatorie de le estructures de le linguas pove eser extraordinariement grand.

There are two sentences together, the first one sets out the topic and the second one develops the comment. The topic sentence has no verb.

This is a typical case of Chinese and Japanese languages, which usually rules the grammar of the objective languages (for example the postposition).


An example of Chinese sentence translated into multilinguale could be as follows:

猎鼠的 猫 (Chinese)


Cat, it hunts mice (English)

(Referent topic) (Comment on the topic)


Le cat, il caza rates (Multilinguale)


There are several referents: a general one (topic) and a focal one, which could be about the actor or subjective (nominative) other on the object (absolutive). The topic phrase is referred to the general referent, while the focal referent will be in the comment phrase.

The Chinese language has no marks for this fact, but the Japanese language, for instance, employs the following particles:

  • Wa – General referent (subject, topic)
  • Ga – Focal referent (objective or subjective)

The combinatory of the structures of languages can be extraordinarily big

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